GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Ad Network

An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks are the sales representatives for the websites within the network.

Advanced Video Ad

Video advertisement with programming logic that enables user interactivity, interaction with the video content play, or other advanced features.

Aspect Ratio

The width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. Modulates displays ads in a 4:3 aspect ratio.

Auto-play

The function of a video player that starts playing a video automatically without the user needing to click any buttons.

Average view time

Refers to the amount of time the video ad was played by users.

Bit Rate

The average number of bits that one second of video or audio data will consume.

CPA (Cost Per Action)

A pricing model that allows advertisers to be charged by their publishers only when an agreed upon action is taken by a user such as a sale or registration. Also known as CPI (Cost per Interaction)

CPC (Cost Per Click)

A pricing model that allows advertiser to pay a specific amount per user click. Can back into an average eCPM higher than typical CPMs if publisher performance is high.

CPM (Cost Per Thousand)

A pricing model that allows advertisers to pay a specific amount per 1,000 user views / impressions.

Channel

A band of similar content; within the Modulates network, publishers can set up a channel for different sites, sections, demographics, geographics, etc.

Client-Side Ad Request

A request that is initiated by the user's web browser. It allows a page to have different and changing content depending on user input, environmental conditions (such as the time of day), or other variables.

Companion Ad

Modulates supports the use of a 300×250 companion which runs alongside the video player via a video gallery.

Conversion Rate

Ratio of visitors who convert casual content views or website visits into desired actions based on subtle or direct requests from marketers, advertisers, and content creators.

Cookie

A small piece of information (i.e. program code) that is stored on a browser for the purpose of identifying that browser during audience activity and between visits or sessions.

Coverage

When Modulates answers a publisher's call or 'ad query' with a video advertisement that matches the publisher's predetermined parameters.

Cue Point

Player or user defined points in the playback of a video that will trigger a specified event to occur. In online video, this could be for tracking view rate (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).

Effective CPM (eCPM)

A measurement of the effectiveness of a publisher's inventory being sold. eCPM is measured by dividing total earnings by total number of impressions in thousands.

Embedable Video

A fully stand-alone video content player that has embedable code that can then be placed on other websites / pages.

Event Trackers

Used for video view tracking, click tracking, or other interactions with the video ad.

FLV

Flash Video is a file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player.

Flash

An Adobe product that is commonly used to create animation, online advertising, web components, and video functionality for websites.

HTML5

HTML5 is a W3C specification that defines the fifth major revision of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). One of the major changes inHTML5 is in respect to how HTML addresses Web applications. Other new features in HTML5 include specific functions for embedding graphics, audio, video, and interactive documents.

IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau)

IAB is a non-profit trade association devoted exclusively to maximizing the use and effectiveness of interactive advertising and marketing.

Impressions

Responses from a web server to a page request from the user browser that are recorded by Modulates on the first frame of video ad playback.

In-Banner Ad

A video ad built to run in a typical display ad environment. The audio is always user-initiated and the ad will fit inside of the typical IAB banner sizes

In-Stream Ad

A video ad built to run with the content on the page, such as video content or online games. A typical example is a pre-roll video that runs on a video player before the video content of the publisher plays. Audio is always auto, similar to a typical television commercial environment.

InLine Ad

VAST document that includes all the elements necesary to display the visual experience of the ad.

Inventory

The number of ad space available for sale on a website.

Linear Video Ad

The ad is presented before, in the middle of, or after the video content is consumed by the user, in very much the same way a TV commercial can play before, during or after the chosen program.

MPEG-4 (MP4)

Movie or video clip that uses MPEG-4 compression, a standard developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG); commonly used for sharing video files on the Internet.

Non-linear Video Ad

The ad runs concurrently with the video content so the users see the ad while viewing the content. Non-linear video ads can be delivered as text, graphical ads, or as video overlays.

Performance-based Video Advertising

An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads.

Post-roll

A Linear Video ad spot that appears after the video content completes

Pre-roll

A Linear Video ad spot that appears before the video content plays.

Primary Ad Server

First ad serving system called by the Video Player or other framework. It is assumed that in most cases a publisher will make all initial ad requests through their Primary Ad Server (whether homegrown or third party), then redirect to other ad servers as needed.

Publisher/Affiliates

A site or a group of sites in the Modulates marketplace under one account.

Reach

Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, or the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Run of Channel (ROC)

A form of campaign targeting, when an advertiser creates a channel comprised of selected publishers.

Run of Network (RON)

The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.

SWF

An Adobe file format intended to be small enough for publication on the web, SWF files usually contain animation.

Secondary Ad Server

Ad server used by an ad network or by the buyer of ads to serve creative, track results and optimize creatives.

Server-Side Ad Request

A request that is verified by running a script directly on the publisher's server. The primary advantage to server-side scripting is the ability to highly customize the response based on the user's requirements, access rights, or queries into data stores. From a security point of view, server-side scripts are never visible to the browser as these scripts are executed on the server and emit HTML corresponding to user's input to the page.

VAST (Video Ad Serving Template)

XML document format describing an ad to be displayed in, over, or around a Video Player or a Wrapper pointing to a downstream VAST document to be requested.

Video Player

Environment in which in-stream video content is played. The Video Player may be built by the publisher or provided by a vendor.

VPAID (Video Player-Ad Interface Definition)

A document designed to standardize the communication between video players and in-stream video advertising.

Wrapper Ad

VAST document that points to another VAST document from a different server.

Bandwidth

The capacity of the transmission medium stated in bits per second or as a frequency. The bandwidth of optical fiber is in the gigabit or billion bits per second range, while ethernet coaxial cable is in the megabit or million bits per second range.

Clickable Video

Video player that has embedded in it so that clicking on it initiates some kind of action or result. On a web page, a clickable video is any image that has a URL embedded in it.

Video Compression (Codec)

Also called a compressor, a compression / decompression software component which translates video between its uncompressed form and the compressed form in which it is stored on media.

UGC

User generated Content

SSP

Supply Side platform

DSP

Demand Side Platform

CTR

Click Through Rates

CDN

Content Delivery Network

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